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They had been oppressed and perse- cuted in their old Fatherland. Imprisonment, scourging, heavy fines and confiscations was their lot. In some states of north- ern Germany the magistrates paid a reward of five florins for the information of the whereabouts of a Quaker. The Friends at Orefeld, in June , bought of Wm. Penn 18, acres and those of Frankfurt 25, acres. In , on the 6th of October, the first thirteen families from Crefeld were landed at Philadelphia. Two days later they selected the land for their settlement, on the 24th it was surveyed, on the 25th the homesteads were divided and the building up of Germantown was begun at once.
Many more Germans, especially from Kriesheim, followed and in a few years Germantown had be- come a flourishing city. Where live high German people and low Dutch, Whose trade in weaving linnen cloth is much. There grows the flax. William Penn, the proprietor of the province, frequently visited them, — preached to them in the German language and always remained their true friend. In they erected the first meeting-house in Germantown and Franz Daniel Pastorius wag their leader and preacher. Pas- torius, who also was the first mayor and delegate of the town, 51 was a man of lofty character and classical education.
These Germans were not uneducated people, as they have falsely been represented to be.
The most glorious and famous ac- tion of these German men was : tlieir solemn jjrotest against slavery, published in English on April 18th, They belonged to different sects, who had lived in hatred and discord in their native land, and they imported unpleasant feelings of jealousy, intolerance and pretention in- to the abode of peace founded by the noble Penn. They were only on one point of one mind, and that was their envy and antipathy towards the prosperous Germans, who were rapidly increasing in number.
The English settlers called them "for- eigners," and a very deplorable spirit of native presumption grew up. This spitef ulness ' of the two nationalities was heightened when the Germans issued their protest against the institution of slavery. The Mennonites and Anabaptists originally were closely connected.
Both disputed the legality and efficacy of the christening of children, which they condemned as being in contradiction of the Holy scripture. The Anabaptists were rather troublesome people and religious fanatics, they desired the restoration of the empire of Christ on earth, community of property, belief in sacred revelation, etc.
Conse- quently they were bitterly persecuted. But they deserve high credit for having unfolded the banner of constant progress or perpetual reformation — and to have enforced, like the Quak- ers, rigid morality and recognized equality of mankind. Simmons was a Catholic 52 priest at Witmarsum, when in several Anabaptists and among them his own brother, were executed. This event made a deep impression on his mind, he left the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Anabaptists, taking charge of one of their congregations at Groeningen.
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Simmons reorgan- ized the Dutch Anabaptists, disapproving all religious and po- litical agitation. He was opposed to christening children, but declared the baptism of adults to be indispensible — and he desired to restore the original character of the Christian Church. Taking oath, warfare, public offices, law-suits and divorces were rejected by him.
Although his followers were very peace- able people, they were confounded with the fanatic Anabap- tists, who engaged in a bloody conspiracy at Muenster, and persecution followed. In twenty-five fugitive Mennonites were already landed at the mouth of the Delaware, but noth- ing is known of their fate.
However, many more followed, and from to the Mennonite immigration was very great. Another kind of Anabaptists are the Dunkards Tunker or Dunker. Alexander Mark was the founder of this sect. The Dunkards were not tolerated in their native state: "the Palatinate," but they prospered in jimerica.
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The nickname of Tunker was given them because they perform the act of baptism by immersion, but they call themselves Brethren and in America "the German Baptist Brethren. They resign all worldly amusements, and only admire a truly Christian char- acter and life, they are highly esteemed for their morality and reliability. A promise given they hold sacred. The first twenty families of this sect arrived from Crefeld in Pennsyl- vania anno Their number soon increased and commu- nities of Dunkards were organized" at Germantown, at Coventry, Chester Co.
Oswald Stidenstickcr, page Cincinnati, , 18S3. But soon they divided into various groups like the Ephrata-sect or Beisselians in Com- monly they are classed as "Old Conservatives," who consider ignorance as less dangerous to the welfare of the soul than the possession of a treasure of worldly knowledge, — and the "Progressive," who are in favor of public education.
They soon came to Virginia from Tennessee and Ohio. In Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zin- zendorf, the founder of this sect, arrived in America, where he intended to propagate his creed. Prom this they derive an ascetic theory of life — but also a grave religious seriousness and reverence. Dogmatical cunning and distinctions of creed they treat with indifference, the serenity of mind they value most. This devotion is to them no tiresome toil, but a pleasure; the death wounds of Christ do not frighten but enchant them.
If the Moravian faith is of confined view in sev- eral respects, it has nevertheless infused the deadening dogmatics of Protestantism with new life; proclaiming: that those will not be excluded from salvation who have no knowledge of the gospel. Count Zinzendorf first endeavored to unite the various sects in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania into one community, but unsuccessfully, and then he directed his attention to the conver- sion of the Indians.
The Moravians devoted special care to edu- cation. Their schools at Bethlehem, Litiz and Nazareth were counted among the very best in Pennsylvania. The strict separation of the sexes during juvenile years, the match-making by the old folks with disregard of mutual affection of the betrothed, the use of lottery tickets as decisions of God, the tasteless costumes of the women, were among these strange regulations.
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Karl Sclimidt, Vol. II, page Coe- then, The nature of the Luth- eran and Calvin church are supposed to be familiar to the reader, but the great part they have played in the civilization of the col- onies, will receive in this history full mention in its place. The religious motives of the early German immigration to Pennsylvania and the adjoining colonies are very well defined by the following public statement of Christian Saur, printer and publisher at Germantown, published in This noble liberty is like a decoy bird or bait which draws men first to Pennsyl- vania, and if good lands get scarce, they move into the adjoining English colonies, and these English colonies are settled by many immigrants from Germany to the advantage of the Crown on ac- count of Pennsylvania.
Topographical Survey of Virginia.
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HE State of Virginia, after the excision of West Virginia, is divided, with reference to the surface and natural character of the land and extending from East to West, into the following grand divisions : Tidewater Virginia 11, sq. The Tidewater Division extends from the Atlantic ocean to the lower falls of the Appomattox, James and Eappahannock rivers, and is divided by the large tidal rivers and the waters of Chesapeake bay into nine principal and a large number of sec- ondary peninsulas.
An imaginary line drawn diagonally across the State and touching the cities of Petersburg, Eichmond, Fred- ericksburg and Alexandria, will represent this section. In this belt the winter is mild, snow seldom covers the ground for any length of time, and in summer a large portion of it is refreshed by the.
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Near the line of North Carolina is the swamp and fever-district of Virginia and the fear of "Malaria" keeps away settlers from this unhealthy section. The navi- gable water-ways give the inhabitants special advantages and make the "low country," as it was called, a very desirable part of the State. Hampton roads and Norfolk bay present the finest and deepest harbors on the Atlantic coast.
Here the early settlers established themselves, and here are found those elegant mansions and baronial estates for which Virginia was once celebrated.
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