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Deterrence: I Don’t Think It Means What You Think It Means - Modern War Institute
Book Authors Journal Authors. Free Preview. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book This volume moves beyond Cold War deterrence theory to show the many ways in which deterrence is applicable to contemporary security: in space, in cyberspace, and against non-state actors. Show all. Pages Lowther, Adam B. Nevertheless, uncontrolled migration was deeply unfair to both the sending and receiving countries, he said, pointing out that his country continued to lead the way in providing humanitarian assistance to many countries.
It was a massive source of embarrassment for the United Nations that countries with egregious human rights records sat on the Human Rights Council. He noted that the United States stood against the corrupt, destabilizing regime in Cuba, he said, emphasizing that it would not lift its sanctions on that country until it carried out reforms. The problem in that country was not that socialism had been implemented poorly, but that it had been carried out faithfully, he said, noting that, wherever true socialism or communism had been adopted, it had delivered devastation and failure.
Today more than ever, Africa was determined to take its destiny into its own hands and be the main stakeholder in its development, while also taking a leading role in managing international affairs. It would not be an easy task, but Africa had the potential and assets to take its place as one of the greatest continents on the world stage. The interdependence of the challenges facing humanity required a paradigm shift in perceptions and actions concerning Africa.
The massive flow of refugees, large-scale migration and natural disasters were a sad illustration of that reality. The new approach much put greater emphasis on human beings. Africa had been the most dynamic continent over the last decade, and forecasts indicated that trend would continue, he said. Economies must be diversified to make them more resilient through investments in areas like agriculture, infrastructure, information and communications technology ICT , and energy.
Such a structural transformation would depend on access to energy, although economic integration would require the effective implementation of the Continental Free Trade Area. The African Union had sought a lasting solution to the numerous challenges confronting young people to make that part of society the real driving force for development.
Africa had decided to take responsibility for itself and speak with one voice to find lasting solutions to its problems, he continued.
The African Union could now speak with one voice on common problems, with a view towards reaffirming its economic autonomy, which would allow it to play a leading role on the international scene. The Union was determined to eradicate hot spots on the continent by promoting dialogue and finding African solutions.
Africa must no longer be left on the side-lines of decisions affecting it. Turning to United Nations reform, he stressed that the Security Council no longer reflected the realities of the world, particularly given the dearth of African representation on that body. It was high time to fix that injustice, which had gone on too long. In that context, he called for the enlargement of the Security Council, underscoring that if it was not possible to abolish the veto entirely, the new Council members must have the same prerogatives and privileges as the current members.
The African Union promoted a regional approach to conflicts, which meant that partnership between that entity and the United Nations must be aimed at building regional capacity, given their understanding of the root causes of conflicts, he said. The Union was focused on prevention, mediation, promoting dialogue and finding peaceful political solutions, which was less costly than peacekeeping operations, which had questionable effectiveness.
On terrorism, the African Union considered that only increased cooperation, particularly on the exchange of information and intelligence, would enable it to deal with the scourge and cut off financing sources, he said. Additional efforts must be focused on the eradication of poverty, exclusion and radicalization. The Union reiterated its unfailing support to the people of Palestine and to their right to independence. It was also concerned by the situation on the Korean Peninsula.
The twenty-first century would undoubtedly provide an opportunity for renewal on the African continent, and in that regard, African young people and women were prepared to write a new history for humanity. A strong multilateral system centered on a strong United Nations must be established. The success of those efforts would depend on how well those instruments were implemented.
Σύνοψη του βιβλίου "Deterrence"
She welcomed reforms outlined by the Secretary-General in the areas of peace and security, development and management, expressing particular support for the priority placed on prevention, as the price to pay for conflict in humanitarian, economic and financial terms was much higher than the costs of prevention activities. All countries must do their part. Trust was another important aspect, she said. To take effective preventive measures, it was important to have confidence and at the United Nations, the quality of the partnership established with the host country was crucial.
On migration, notably in Europe, she advocated solutions based on solidarity among countries and stabilizing the political situation in Libya. She expressed hope that the Global Pact for Migration would address both the challenges and opportunities brought about by migration.
Access to the Internet, the impact of digitization on sustainable development and cybersecurity must be addressed hand in hand, she said, also stressing the need for effective management at the United Nations, making reforms indispensable. In an interconnected world, she said, dialogue was essential and must be conducted on large scale and include all relevant parties. Yet, political dialogue had proven insufficient on the issue of climate change. Indeed, scientific diplomacy allowed for making the correct decisions, and politicians must base their decisions on evidence-based policy, she said, convinced of need invest in effective multilateral system.
The principles of peace and security were essential for the dignity of all people. Yet, far too many people were dying in senseless conflicts or suffering displacement due to violence. The enormous human tragedies, damage from armed conflicts and the refugee crisis depleted much-needed resources for social and economic development.
How world leaders treated their people was important to international peace and security, he said, expressing alarm about the recent findings of the use of chemicals weapons on the Syrian people by the Assad regime and the atrocities in Rakka, in Mosul, and other places which demonstrated how little respect was paid to human lives.
Short-sighted interests intended to spread instability were undermining the collective efforts to secure peace and security, he said. The selfish pursuit and egoism of the so-called spheres of influence were crippling peaceful coexistence among nations, using such influence to cover violations of international order and justify disrespect for sovereignty. Such grave disrespect for human life could not be tolerated. He called for collective resolve to stand up for the United Nations principles and said some countries had a special responsibility to do regionally or internationally.
He reiterated the importance of keeping promises and delivering results as part of climate change efforts.
Slovakia understood the urgency for collective action and had pushed for the swift ratification of the Paris Agreement during its tenure as President of the European Union last year. Because there is no more noble task than for us than to serve our people for them to live in peace, in dignity and in prosperity.
While attention had turned to violence in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, and instability in the Sahel and Lake Chad regions caused by Al-Qaida and Boko Haram, older conflicts in Gaza, Yemen and the Rakhine State of Myanmar continued to claim lives and cause immense suffering. The displacement of the Muslim Rohingya community in Buddhist-majority Myanmar, in particular, required urgent international action, he said.
Addressing the root causes of those conflicts was crucial for long-lasting stability and peace, he said, many of which stemmed from widening inequalities within societies and between rich and poor nations. Amid mounting pressure to end those crises, he said the international community could take heart that strides had been made to bring stability to conflict zones. He commended the United Nations for helping to settle thousands of civilians displaced by the fighting in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, and expressed appreciation for efforts by Germany, Italy and Turkey to assist thousands of refugees.
Its typical feature was that it was based on terror — and nothing more. On the other side of the coin was the issue of migration, he said, which was often provoked by terrorist actions, as had been the case in Syria and Iraq. Migration was connected to terrorism in that terrorists often hid within migrant populations.
By welcoming migrants in Europe, countries were fuelling the phenomenon of brain drain, and in turn, reversing progress in countries of origin. In conclusion, he said the war on terrorism should be based on historical optimism and a belief that it would be overcome. In Barcelona, for example, the Spanish people had said they were not afraid, while former United States President Franklin Roosevelt had proclaimed freedom from fear.
Related Deterrence: Rising Powers, Rogue Regimes, and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
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